Biological Shape Measurement 

Noncontact 3D measurement 
In 1997, as a Research Fellow in the Departments of
Computer Science and
Biochemistry at the
University of Western Australia, I was part of a major,
ongoing study into Human Lactation, involving noncontact 3D breast measurement.
Some aspects of this project are reviewed
here.



The figure to the left illustrates a simple measurement taken of a particular
subjects head, showing the actual measured points, as well as the resulting
texture mapped model from two different viewpoints.
The problem of occlusion is quite clear from this figure  there is no data from any areas invisible to the camera, such as much of the side of the head, under the chin, and even the side of the nose. To help alleviate this problem, I worked on enhancing the basic system to employ three independent camera/projector pairs, and thus integrate data from three different viewpoints.


Human Lactation 
I also worked on integrating into the system thermographic data obtained using
an infrared camera.
The inclusion of temperature information was particularly interesting since it gave
an indication of the underlying synthetic activity, as shown in the images below,
one of a mother lactating in her right breast
only, and one of a mother lactating in her left breast only.
Note the large temperature difference between breasts in both cases,
with the lactating breast as much as 4 degrees warmer than the other.




Thermography 
The thermography study also clearly showed the drop in temperature
during breastfeeding as illustrated in the following figure. The six images
shown were taken at regular intervals during a single feed, and the temperature
drops from around 35 degrees in the first picture (top left frame), to
approximately 30 degrees in the final picture (bottom right frame).




Macintosh port of SHAPE 
Another application of the noncontact 3D measurement system I was involved in
was in 1995 as part of a project for Fremantle Hospital in Perth.
This work involved porting the system to the Macintosh platform, and incorporating
colour information in the image analysis, in order to construct a system that could
be used to aid in the diagnosis and treatment of leg ulcers.


Selected Papers 


Computational Fluid Dynamics 

3D Hydrodynamic and Water Quality Modelling 
In 1996 I was a Research Fellow in the Centre for Water Research at University of Western Australia. While there, I designed and built ELMO, a three dimensional Estuary and Lake Model. ELMO, written in Fortran 90, employed a semiimplicit discretisation of the NavierStokes equations, assumed hydrostatic vertical pressure, and used a EulerLagrangian advection scheme. A turbulent closure mechanism was included, and the model joined to a threedimensional water quality model.
Click here or on the image below to download a movie produced from
an ELMO simulation of Lake Kinneret in Israel (2.5 MB). 

Selected Paper 


Theoretical Plasma Physics 

Nonlinear Dynamics 
From 1990 to 1993 I was a PhD student in the Department of Theoretical Physics and the Plasma Research Laboratory, Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, at the Australian National University. My thesis research was in the nonlinear dynamics of plasma instabilities, specifically tearing modes and collisional drift waves. I looked at the Invariant Manifold Reduction, which is a generalisation of the Centre Manifold Reduction, and allows the construction of a lowdimensional description of the longterm dynamics of an infinite dimensional nonlinear system. The two Quicktime movies below show animations of two interesting and stable nonlinear states of the tearing mode on a 4D invariant manifold. The first shows the development of a travelling wave, and the second a stable heteroclinic cycle where two unstable m=2 modes are linked to form a stable cycle switching back and forth between them.


Magnetohydrodynamics 
My first taste of research was as a 4th year student in Theoretical Plasma
Physics in the School of Physics
at Sydney University
in 1989, studying surface waves on current sheets.
This lead to studying tearing modes in rotating plasmas for the first
six months of my PhD, before becoming more focussed on the nonlinear
work described above.


Selected Papers 
